Fulbourn Primary School

Dare to Discover




Year 1 

Year 2 

Year 3 

Year 4 

Year 5 

Year 6 

Place Value 

-  Recognise some numbers of personal significance.  

- Read and write numerals 1 to 20.  

- Count objects to 20.  

- Begin to count backwards.  

- Say and select the correct numeral to represent the total number of objects counted up to 20.  

- Count up to 10 objects from a larger group.  

- Count an irregular arrangement of up to 20 objects.  

-Estimate how many objects you can see and check by counting.  

- Represent numbers using objects, including Numicon and Base 10.  

- Count to and across 100, forwards and backwards, from any given number.  

- Count, read and write numbers to 100 in numerals.  

- Represent numbers using objects and pictures eg Dienes and Numicon 

- Recognise odd and even numbers.  



- Read and write numbers to at least 100 in numerals and in words.  

- Recognise the place value of each digit in a two digit number (tens, ones)  

- Identify, represent and estimate numbers, including on a number line.  

- Compare and order numbers from 0 up to 100; use <, > and = signs.  

- Count in tens from any number, forward and backward. 


- Read, write, identify, represent and estimate numbers up to 1000.  

- Find 10 or 100 more or less than a given number. 

- Recognise the place value of each digit in a three-digit number. 

- Compare and order numbers up to 1000. 


- Find 1000 more or less than a given number.  

- Recognise the place value of each digit in a four digit number (thousands, hundreds, tens and ones). 

- Order and compare numbers beyond 1000. 

- Identify, represent and estimate numbers using different representations. 

- Round any number to the nearest 10, 100 or 1000. 

- Count backwards through zero to include negative numbers.  

- Read Roman numerals to 100 (I to C). 

- Read, write, order and compare numbers to at least 1000000 and say the value of each digit.  

- Count forwards or backwards in steps of powers of 10 from any number.  

- Multiply and divide whole numbers by 10, 100 and 1000.  

- Interpret negative numbers in context, count forwards and backwards with positive and negative whole numbers including through zero. 

- Round any number up to 1000000 to the nearest 10, 100, 1000, 10000 and 100000 

- Read Roman numerals to 1000 (M) and recognise years written in Roman numerals. 

- Read, write, order and compare numbers up to 10,000,000 and determine the value of each digit.  

- Round any whole number to a required degree of accuracy. 

- Use negative numbers in context, and calculate intervals across zero.  


Addition and Subtraction 

(see calculation policy, ‘Progression in Calculation’, for detailed teaching sequences) 

- Use the words ‘more’ or ‘fewer’ to compare two sets of objects. 

- Find the total number of objects in two groups by counting all of them.  

- Say the number that is one more than a given number.  

- Find one more or one less from a group of up to 20 objects.  

- Begin to use the vocabulary involved in adding and subtracting.  

- Add and subtract two single digit numbers, using concrete objects.  

- Count on or back to find the solution to additions and subtractions within 20.  


- Identify the number one more or less than a given number.  

- Represent and use number bonds and related subtraction facts within 20. 

- Read, write and interpret mathematical statements involving addition, subtraction and equals signs.  

- Add and subtract one digit numbers to 20, including 0.  

- Solve one step problems and missing number problems, using concrete resources and pictures.  


- Recall and use addition and subtraction facts to 20 fluently, and derive and use related facts up to 100.  

- Add and subtract numbers using concrete objects, pictorial representations, and mentally.  

- Show that the addition of two numbers can be done in any order (commutative) and subtraction of one number from another cannot.  

- Solve problems with addition and subtraction. 

- Recognise and use the inverse relationship between addition and subtraction and use this to check calculations and solve missing number problems. 

- Add and subtract numbers with up to three digits mentally.  

- Add and subtract numbers with up to three digits, using column method.  

- Estimate the answer to a calculation and use inverse operations to check answers.  

- Add and subtract numbers mentally with increasingly large numbers.  

- Add and subtract numbers with up to 4 digits using the formal written methods of columnar addition and subtraction where appropriate.  

- Estimate and use inverse operations to check answers to a calculation.  

- Solve addition and subtraction two step problems in contexts, deciding which operations and methods to use and why. 

- Add and subtract numbers mentally with increasingly large numbers.  

- Add and subtract whole numbers with more than 4 digits using the column method. 

- Use rounding to check answers to calculations. 

- Decide which operations and methods to use and why to solve multi-step problems.  

- Solve addition and subtraction multi step problems in contexts, deciding which operations and methods to use and why.  

- Use their knowledge of the order of operations. 

- Use estimation to check answers to calculations and determine in the context of a problem, an appropriate degree of accuracy. 

Multiplication and Division 

(see calculation policy, ‘Progression in Calculation’, for detailed teaching sequences) 

- Share objects out equally.  

- Solve problems including doubling and halving.  

- Count in multiples of twos, fives and tens.  

- Use grouping to solve one step multiplication and division problems using concrete resources and pictures.  

- Count in threes.  

- Recall and use multiplication and division facts for the 2, 5 and 10 times tables.  

- Calculate mathematical statements for multiplication and division within the multiplication tables and write them using the multiplication (x), division (÷) and equals (=) sign.  

- Solve problems involving multiplication and division, using materials, arrays, repeated addition, mental methods and multiplication and division facts.  

- Show that the multiplication of two numbers can be done in any order (commutative) and division of one number by another cannot. 


- Count from 0 in multiples of 4, 8, 50 and 100.  

- Recall and use multiplication and division facts for the 3, 4 and 8 multiplication tables.  

- Write and calculate mathematical statements for multiplication and division using the multiplication tables they know, including for two-digit numbers times one-digit numbers. 

- Solve problems, including missing number problems, involving multiplication and division. 

- Count in multiples of 6, 7, 9, 25 and 1000. 

- Recall and use multiplication and division facts for multiplication tables up to 12 × 12.  

- Use place value, known and derived facts to multiply and divide mentally, including: multiplying by 0 and 1; dividing by 1; multiplying together three numbers.  

- Recognise and use factor pairs and commutativity in mental calculations.  

- Multiply two digit and three digit numbers by a one digit number using formal written layout.  

- Divide three digit numbers by one digit numbers using short division.  


- Multiply and divide numbers mentally drawing upon known facts.  

- Identify multiples and factors, including finding all factor pairs of a number, and common factors of two numbers.  

- Recognise and use square numbers and cube numbers.  

- Establish whether a number up to 100 is prime and recall prime numbers up to 19.  

- Multiply numbers up to 4 digits by a one or two digit number using a formal written method, including long multiplication for 2 digit numbers. 

- Divide numbers up to 4 digits by a one digit number using the formal written method of short division and interpret remainders appropriately for the context.  

- Understand the use of the equals sign and be able to solve missing number problems.  

- Multiply multi-digit number up to 4 digits by a 2-digit number using the formal written method of long multiplication.  

- Divide numbers up to 4 digits by 2-digit whole number using the formal written method of short and long division, and interpret remainders as whole number remainders, fractions, or by rounding as appropriate for the context.  

- Identify common factors, common multiples and prime numbers. 

- Scale quantities up and down using whole numbers.  


Fractions, Decimals (from Y4) and Percentages (from Y5) 

- Recognise, find and name a half as one of two equal parts of an object, shape or quantity.  


- Recognise, find, name and write fractions 1/3, ¼ , 2/4 and 3/4 of a length, shape, set of objects or quantity.  

- Write simple fractions for example, ½ of 6 = 3. 

- Recognise the equivalence of 2/4 and ½.  

- Count up and down in tenths; know the value of a tenth.  

- Recognise and use fractions as numbers. 

- Recognise, find and write fractions of a discrete set of objects.  

- Recognise and show, using diagrams, equivalent fractions with small denominators.  

- Compare and order unit fractions, and fractions with the same denominators.  

- Add and subtract fractions with the same denominator within one whole. 

- Recognise and show, using diagrams, families of common equivalent fractions.  

- Count up and down in hundredths; recognise that hundredths arise when dividing an object by one hundred and dividing tenths by ten.  

- Add and subtract fractions with the same denominator. 

- Recognise and write decimal equivalents of any number of tenths or hundredths.  

- Find the effect of dividing a one or two digit number by 10 or 100, identifying the value of the digits in the answer as ones, tenths and hundredths. 

- Compare numbers with the same number of decimal places up to two decimal places.  

- Round decimals with one decimal place to the nearest whole number.  

- Recognise and write decimal equivalents to ¼, ½ and ¾.  


- Compare and order fractions whose denominators are multiples of the same number.  

- Identify, name and write equivalent fractions of a given fraction, represented visually. 

- Recognise mixed numbers and improper fractions and convert from one form to the other. 

- Add and subtract fractions with the same denominator and denominators that are multiples of the same number.  

- Multiply proper fractions and mixed numbers by whole numbers, supported by materials and diagrams.  

- Read and write decimal numbers as fractions. 

- Read, write, order and compare numbers with up to three decimal places.  

- Round decimals with two decimal places to the nearest whole number and to one decimal place.  

- Recognise the per cent symbol (%) and its meaning.  


- Use common factors to simplify fractions; use common multiples to express fractions in the same denomination.  

- Compare and order fractions, including fractions > 1. 

- Add and subtract fractions with different denominations and mixed numbers, using the concept of equivalent fractions.  

- Multiply simple pairs of proper fractions, writing the answer in its simplest form.  

- Divide proper fractions by whole numbers.  

- Recall and use equivalences between simple fractions, decimals and percentages, including in different contexts. 

- Identify the value of each digit in numbers given to 3 decimal places and multiply numbers by 10, 100 and 1,000 giving answers up to 3 decimal places.  

- Multiply one-digit numbers with up to 2 decimal places by whole numbers.  



- Use mathematical names for 3D and 2D shapes.  

- Select a named shape.  

- Describe position using terms such as ‘behind’ or ‘next to’ 

- Use familiar objects to create and copy patterns and build models.  

- Explore characteristics of everyday objects and use mathematical language to describe them. 

- Recognise and name common 2-D shapes. 

- Recognise and name common 3-D shapes. 

- Describe position, direction and movement, including whole, half, quarter and three quarter turns. 

- Identify and describe the properties of 2-D shapes, including the number of sides and symmetry. 

- Identify and describe the properties of 3-D shapes, including the number of edges, vertices and faces.  

- Identify 2-D shapes on the surface of 3-D shapes.  

- Compare and sort common 2-D and 3-D shapes and everyday objects. 

- Use mathematical vocabulary to describe position, direction and movement including clockwise and anti-clockwise.  

- Order and arrange combinations of mathematical objects in patterns and sequences. 

- Recognise angles as a property of shape or a description of a turn.  

- Use knowledge of right angles, to estimate other angles.  

- Identify horizontal and vertical lines and pairs of perpendicular and parallel lines.  

- Draw 2-D shapes and make 3- D shapes using modelling materials.  

- Recognise 3-D shapes in different orientations and describe them. 

- Identify acute and obtuse angles and compare and order angles up to two right angles by size.  

- Compare and classify geometric shapes, including quadrilaterals and triangles, based on their properties and sizes.  

- Identify lines of symmetry in 2-D shapes presented in different orientations. 

- Complete a simple symmetric figure with respect to a specific line of symmetry. 

- Describe positions on a 2-D grid as coordinates in the first quadrant.  

- Plot specified points and draw sides to complete a given polygon.  

- Describe movements between positions as translations of a given unit to the left/ right and up/ down. 

- Identify 3D shapes from 2D representations.  

- Use the properties of rectangles to deduce related facts and find missing lengths and angles.  

- Distinguish between regular and irregular polygons based on reasoning about equal sides and angles.  

- Know angles are measured in degrees: estimate and compare acute, obtuse and reflex angles.  

- Draw given angles, and measure them in degrees. 

- Identify, describe and represent the position of a shape following a reflection or translation, using the appropriate language, and know that the shape has not changed. 

- Describe positions on the full coordinate grid (all four quadrants).  

- Draw and translate simple shapes on the coordinate plane, and reflect them in the axes. 

- Draw 2 -D shapes using given dimensions and angles.  

- Compare and classify geometric shapes based on their properties and sizes and find unknown angles in any triangles, quadrilaterals and regular polygons.  

- Recognise angles where they meet at a point, are on a straight line, or are vertically opposite, and find missing angles. 



- Use everyday language to talk about size, weight, capacity and distance.  

- Order a set of items by length or height.  

- Order a set of items by weight or capacity.  


- Use everyday language related to time.  

- Measure short periods of time.  


- Use everyday language related to money.  



- Measure and begin to record lengths and heights. 

- Measure and begin to record mass/weight, capacity and volume. 

- Compare, describe and solve practical problems for: lengths, heights, mass/ capacity and volume. 


- Sequence events in chronological order using appropriate language.  

- Recognise and use language relating to dates, including days of the week, weeks, months and years.  

- Tell the time to the hour and half past the hour and draw the hands on a clock face to show these times.  

- Compare, describe and solve practical problems for time [for example, quicker, slower, earlier, later]  

- Measure and begin to record time (hours, minutes, seconds)  


- Recognise and know the value of different denominations of coins and notes. 



- Choose and use appropriate standard units to estimate and measure: length/height in any direction (m/cm); mass (kg/g); temperature (°C); capacity (litres/ml). 

- Compare and order: lengths, mass, volume/capacity and record the results using >, < and =. 


- Tell and write the time to five minutes. 

- Know the number of minutes in an hour and the number of hours in a day.  


- Recognise and use symbols for pounds (£) and pence (p); combine amounts to make a particular value.  

- Find different combinations of coins that equal the same amounts of money.  

- Solve simple problems in a practical context, including giving change. 



- Measure, compare, add and subtract: lengths (m/cm/mm); mass (kg/g); volume/capacity (l/ml).  

- Measure the perimeter of simple 2D shapes. 


- Tell and write the time from an analogue clock, including using Roman numerals from I to XII and 12-hour and 24-hour clocks.  

- Estimate and read time with increasing accuracy to the nearest minute.  

- Use vocabulary such as o’clock, a.m./p.m., morning, afternoon, noon and midnight.  

- Know the number of seconds in a minute and the number of days in each month, year and leap year.  

- Compare durations of events. 


- Add and subtract amounts of money to give change, using both £ and p in practical contexts. 


- Measure and calculate the perimeter of a rectilinear figure in centimetres and metres  

- Convert between different units of measure.  

- Find the area of rectilinear shapes by counting squares. 


- Read, write and convert time between analogue and digital 12- and 24-hour clocks.  

- Solve problems involving converting from hours to minutes; minutes to seconds; years to months; weeks to days.  


Solve money problems involving fractions and decimals to two decimal places. 


- Measure and calculate the perimeter of composite rectilinear shapes in cm and m.  

- Calculate and compare the area of rectangles and estimate the area of irregular shapes. 

- Convert between different units of metric measure [for example, km and m; cm and m; cm and mm; g and kg; l and ml]  

- Understand and use approximate equivalences between metric units and common imperial units such as inches, pounds and pints. 

- Estimate volume and capacity. 


- Solve problems involving converting between units of time. 

Money (included in calculations of four operations) 

- Use, read, write and convert between standard units of measure. 

- Convert between miles and kilometres. 

- Recognise that shapes with the same areas can have different perimeters and vice versa.  

- Recognise when it is possible to use formulae for area and volume of shapes.  

- Calculate the area of parallelograms and triangles. - Calculate, estimate and compare volume of cubes and cuboids using standard units, including cm3 , m3 and extending to other units (mm3 , km3) 

- Illustrate and name parts of circles, including radius, diameter and circumference and know that the diameter is twice the radius. 




- Interpret and construct simple pictograms, tally charts, block diagrams and simple tables.  

- Ask and answer simple questions by counting the number of objects in each category, sorting the categories by quantity and totalling.  

- Interpret and present data using bar charts, pictograms and tables.  

- Solve one-step and two-step using information presented in scaled bar charts and pictograms and tables. 

- Interpret and present discrete and continuous data using appropriate graphical methods, including bar charts and time graphs.  

- Solve comparison, sum and difference problems using information presented in bar charts, pictograms, tables and other graphs. 

- Solve comparison, sum and difference problems using information presented in a line graph.  

- Complete, read and interpret information in tables including timetables. 

- Interpret and construct pie charts and line graphs and use these to solve problems.  

- Calculate the mean as an average. 







- Describe simple linear number sequences.  

- Solve missing number problems expressed algebraically.  


- Use simple formulae. 

- Generate and describe linear number sequences.  

- Express missing number problems algebraically. 

- Find pairs of numbers that satisfy an equation with two unknowns.  

- Enumerate possibilities of combinations of two variables.